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Caricature is an art form that exaggerates one critical aspect of a person, object, or scene for humorous effect or to make a visual comment, yet leaves the subject recognizable.
Propaganda is the spreading of half-truths and lies, or even actual truths in exaggerated form, in such a way that it supports a political, ethical, or social agenda. It is specifically used to influence the opinions of people, rather than disseminate information. Propaganda and advertising techniques are very similar, though advertising in most countries is carefully controlled by laws. The Nazis used most of the media available in Germany to spread their propaganda, and also ensured it was taught in schools.
Mysticism has much in common with artistic inspiration, and is generally defined as a belief that personal experience has a wider meaning, and that symbols from our subconscious minds can inform our understanding of the world. In religion, it's also used to refer to a striving to communicate with God in a direct manner.
Symbolism is the use of arbitrary and/or iconic objects or images to stand in for other meanings – an apple standing for temptation, for instance. Most symbols are influenced by ancient human ideas that carry forward into the present day, but humans are a very symbolic species and create new symbols every day: the environmental hazard symbol, or the "no" symbol applied over top of other symbols. Modern art is highly symbolic.